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Have participants place toys they brought on table in front of them.
Have participants say their names.
Introduce Guest Speaker.
Guest Speaker demonstrates first aid procedures and encourages youth to practice and checks for accuracy.
Distribute "FIRST AID."
Thank Guest Speaker.
Discuss toys that were brought in. Why do participants think they are safe or unsafe toys?
What should they do if unsafe toys are found where they are babysitting?
Distribute and discuss "HOW TO CHOOSE A TOY."
Arrange to have a baby, toddler, and child to observe and interact with, plus a guest speaker to discuss the different ages and stages of children.
1. Be prepared for any emergency.
2. Know the police and fire department phone numbers.
3. Know the phone number where you are sitting.
4. Know the exact address where you are sitting. Write it down. In an emergency, you may forget the house number.
5. Know the nearest neighbor's phone number and write the number down.
6. Time: Time is the greatest factor in any emergency. If you are prepared ahead of time, you can act immediately.
7. When treating an injured child, be sure to wear plastic gloves to control infection.
MINOR CUTS: Do NOT apply any antiseptic; wash thoroughly with soap and water, dry with a clean towel and apply a bandage.
CUTS: Apply pressure directly over the cut with a clean gauze or cloth. When bleeding has been controlled, clean with soap and water and apply a dressing.
MAJOR BLEEDING: Apply pressure directly over the wound immediately and have another child call the police for assistance. If no one is available to call the police, the person who is injured usually can apply pressure himself, while you make the call.
BUMPS AND BRUISES: Wrap a few ice cubes in a handkerchief or wash cloth, strike on the kitchen sink to crush the ice and apply to bruised area or take a package of frozen vegetables to apply to bump. If the child strikes his head, he must be observed for stupor, vomiting, unconsciousness. Do not move the child. Keep him warm, call the fire department, doctor, and parents.
BURNS: Prevent burns! Do not smoke; do not light the fireplace. When cooking, keep handles turned toward the back of the stove. If you are cooking and the phone rings, turn off all burners before answering the phone. Slight burns should be run under cold water or an ice cube held on it. Do not apply ointments. Burns should be treated by the doctor. Call the police for immediate assistance.
NOSE BLEED: A nose bleed may be from an injury to the nose or a foreign body in the nose. It may come on with no warning, especially during the winter months in our dry, heated homes. The child should sit up straight with his head slightly forward and apply pressure by pinching the nostrils for 15 to 20 minutes. If after 10 or 15 minutes the bleeding does not appear to be stopping, the nearest help should be called. DO NOT allow the child to blow his nose. Continue pinching nostrils gently until help arrives.
INSECT BITES AND STINGS: Ice applied to the area will be soothing and slow down an allergic reaction. If anything happens following an insect bite, such as rash, itching, hives, fainting, difficulty in breathing, call the nearest help. If the child has difficulty in breathing, call the police immediately.
ANIMAL BITES: Wash the wound immediately with soap and water several times, and notify parents.
SOMETHING IN THE EAR AND NOSE: No immediate danger, but do not attempt to remove it. Call for help.
BLISTERS AND SPLINTERS: If a blister is unbroken, simply cover it with a sterile gauze pad. For broken blisters, wash gently with warm soap and water. Cover with a clean bandage. Inform parents if swelling or redness develops. For splinters, use tweezers to gently remove any that are sticking out. If embedded, gently open the skin with a sterilized needle and remove with the needle or tweezers. Wash thoroughly with warm soap and water. Cover with a bandage. If the splinter remains embedded or swelling and redness develops, check with parents before taking further action.
SOMETHING IN THE EYE: Do not allow the child to rub the eye. Notify the parents or nearest neighbor. If severe, (bleach, shoe polish, or detergent) flush out with cold water, notify the fire department. If a burn or wound to the eye, notify the fire department and stay with the child.
VOMITING: This sometimes occurs when the child cries hard. Clean up the child. Do not give anything to eat or drink for one hour. If the child vomits again, notify the parents; try to determine if the child is having abdominal pain.
DIARRHEA: Clean and dry the child. If she is having abdominal pain, notify the parents. For your own protection, wash your own hands several times.
CHOKING: More children die from this mishap than from any childhood communicable disease. Prevention here can't be stressed enough. Common objects are - nuts, seeds, hard candy, hot dogs, popcorn, grapes, peanut butter, shells, screws, bolts, pins, needles, buttons, jewelry, coins, toys, marbles, balloons, and bones. Find out if the child can breathe, cry, or speak. See if the child has a strong cough. (A strong cough means there is little or no blockage. It may also dislodge the item if there is a blockage.) If the child is breathing, coughing, or speaking, carefully watch him. Do not start first aid if there is a strong cough or if there is little or no blockage. This can turn partial blockage into complete blockage.
FIRST AID FOR CHOKING: Begin first aid if the child cannot breathe at all or the child's airway is so blocked that there's only a weak cough and loss of color.
FOR INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR OLD:
1. Call for emergency medical services.
2. Place the infant face and head down on your forearm at a 60 degree angle. Support the head and neck. Rest your forearm firmly against your body for extra support. NOTE: If the infant is large, you may want to lay the child face down over your lap. Firmly support the head holding it lower than the trunk.
3. Give four rapid back blows with the heel of your hand, striking high between the shoulder blades.
4. If the blockage is not relieved, turn the infant over. Lay the child down, face up, on a firm surface. Give four rapid chest thrust over the breastbone using two fingers.
5. If breathing does not start, open the mouth with thumb held over tongue and fingers wrapped around lower jaw. This is called the tongue-jaw lift. It draws the tongue away from the back of the throat and may help clear the airway. If you can see the foreign body, it may be removed with a sideways sweep of a finger. Never poke the finger straight into the throat. Be careful of finger sweeps because they may cause further blockage.
6. If the infant does not begin to breathe right away, place your mouth over the mouth and nose of the infant. Attempt two quick, shallow breaths. Because of the infant's size, use quick and short breaths.
7. Repeat steps two through six.
FOR CHILDREN OVER ONE YEAR OLD:
1. Call for emergency medical services.
2. Place the child on his back. Kneel at his feet. Put the heel of one hand in the midline between the navel and ribcage. Place the second hand on top of the first. Then press firmly, but gently, into the abdomen with a rapid inward and upward thrust. Repeat this six to ten times. These abdominal thrusts are called the Heimlich maneuver.
3. If breathing does not start, open the airway using the tongue-jaw lift technique. If you can see the foreign body, you can try to remove it with a sideways sweep of the finger. Be careful, though because finger sweeps may push the object further down the airway.
4. If the child does not begin to breathe right away, attempt to restore breathing with the mouth-to-mouth technique. If this fails, repeat a series of six to ten abdominal thrusts.
5. Repeat steps two through four.
NOTE: In a larger child, the abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) may be performed when the victim is standing, sitting, or lying down.
POISONS: If you suspect poisoning, look quickly for the bottle or other clues to identify the cause of poisoning. Immediately call the Poison Control Center 1-800-682-9211. They keep a list of poisonous substances and will recommend the best action to take. Follow their instructions precisely.
STRAINS AND SPRAINS:
RICE is the answer.
Rest the injury. Avoid using the injured area as much as you can, and do not exercise.
Ice down the sore muscle for 20 to 30 minutes. Do this at 2-hour intervals for 48 hours.
Compress the injury. Use an elastic bandage (found in pharmacies). Wrap securely, but not too tightly.
Elevate the injury above the heart.
Continue these measures until swelling and pain subside.
Resume normal activities slowly, stopping if pain returns.
Warm baths and heating pads will help relax stiff muscles.
A child has different moods in a day of play: active, quiet, sharing, solitary.
The best toys will be fun for the child and will do one or more of these:
Carefully chosen toys are helpful to a child's social, emotional, mental and even physical development.
Check the age recommendations on the game or toy box.
Observe and learn what fascinates the children; choose hobby or sport items accordingly.
Certain precautions are important. Heed warnings such as "not intended for children under 3 years." Be careful in your selection. For instance, tricycles, wagons, and gyms should be the right size and for the right age level to be handled properly. Projectile toys should be used only by responsible children over 8 years of age.
Toys are for fun, but for safety's sake, you should check all the toys the children will be playing with. Look for:
Teach older children the proper way to connect or disconnect electric toys. Tell them to hold the rubberized plug, rather than tug on the cord itself.
Toys should not be left outdoors overnight. Moisture may cause rusting and result in structural weakness.
"Your Child and Safe Toys" - Bradlees Toy Tester Program
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