Problem Inventory for Boys (APU); for girls (PIAG)
Problem Solving Inventory (PSI)
Social Problem-Solving Inventory for Adolescents (SPSI-A)
Name: Adolescent Problem Inventory for Boys (APU); for girls (PIAG)
Author(s): API: B.J. Freedman; APIG: L.R. Gaffney & R.M. McFall
Date: API- 1978; APIG - 1981
Instrument Description: Designed to assess the competence of adolescent's problem solving skills. Uses tape recorded readings of specific, hypothetical social situations involving requests, temptations, demands, and accusations of peers, parents and adult authorities. A maximally skillful response shows more effective resolution of problem and considers it less likely the adolescent will face more of the same problem in the future. An overall score of social skills is obtained by averaging scores across situations.
Where Available: literature
Literature Reference: API: Freedman, B.J., Donahoe, C., Rosenthal, L., Schlundt, D.G., & McFall, R.M. (1978). A social behavioral analysis of skill deficits in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescent boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, p. 1448-1462/. APIG: Gaffney, L.R. & McFall, R.M. (1981). A comparison of social skills in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescent girls using behavioral role playing inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, p. 959-967.
Intended Audience: Adolescents
Psychometrics: Validity supported for both Black and Caucasian adolescents. Alphas for the shortened versions showed high correlations with their 52 item measure with Cronbach's Alphas for the shortened measure for boys was .79 and for girls was .85.
Advantages/Disadvantages: both long and short versions
Return to top of page.
Author(s): P. Paul Heppner
Instrument Description: The inventory consists of a 35-item self-report measure in a 6-point Likert style format (Strongly agree to strongly disagree). The measure is designed to assess an individual's perceptions of his or her capabilities with regards to problem solving behaviors and attitudes. In other words, the PSI measures a person's level of efficacy as a problem solver. The PSI provides a single, general index of Problem-Solving Confidence (self assurance while engaging in problem solving activities), Approach-Avoidance Style (a general tendency to either approach or avoid problem solving activities), and Personal Control (determines the extent of control one has over their emotions and behaviors while solving problems). High scores indicate general negative self appraisal. Areas of potential use for the PSI: clinical and counseling assessment, research, contrasting actual abilities of an individual with their problem solving appraisal, training, and program evaluation.
Where Available: Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA
Literature Reference: Heppner, P.P., & Peterson, C.H. (1982). The development and implications of a personal problem-solving inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, p. 66-75.
Cost: $14.50 per 25 test booklets; $12.00 for manual; $13.00 per specimen set (manual, test, booklet, scoring key).
Intended Audience: appears to be designed primarily for adults, ages 16+
Subtests: Problem Solving Confidence (self assurance while engaging in problem solving activities), Approach-Avoidance Style (a general tendency to either approach or avoid problem-solving activities), and Personal Control (determines the extent of control one feels they have over emotions and behaviors while solving problems)
Psychometrics: Estimates of reliability in terms of test-retest based on 2 week duration were r's in the mid 80's for each of the subtests, and .89 for the inventory total. Internal consistencies using Cronbach's alpha ranging from .72 to .85 for the subtests and .90 for the inventory total. Concurrent, discriminate, and construct validity have been assessed across various research studies and found correlations between the factors and the total PSI to be significant.
Advantages/Disadvantages: The PSI takes approximately 10-15 minutes to complete and may be given to a group or individual. As it is a self-report, there is the potential for bias in the reporting. The inventory has been used primarily on adults but the manual fails to specify the reading level required for its maximal use. The inventory has it's strangest track record in research with clinical usage needing further testing to determine its appropriateness and usefulness.
Return to top of page.
Name: Social Problem-Solving Inventory for Adolescents (SPSI-A)
Author(s): Marianne Frauenknecht and David R. Black
Instrument Description: The instrument was designed as a structured self-report personality test to assess both covert and overt dispositions in problem solving. The behaviors were to be reported regardless of whether they occurred or did not occur in wither social of personal contexts. The instrument was originally designed for adults (T. D'Zurilla and A. Nezu), but the current authors modified the reading level of the original to a stage that was appropriate for adolescents. The SCSI-A has three scales: Automatic Process, Problem Orientation, and Problem Solving Skills, Two of the scales consists of separate subscales. The Problem Solving Skills scales consists of Problem Identification, Alternative Generation, Consequence Prediction, and Implementation/Evaluation/Reorganization. Negative item responses are reverse and scores calculated by summing the numerical responses for each item and dividing them by the total number of items for the inventory, scale, or subscales used. High scores equate to greater self-perceptions of problem solving ability.
Where Available: Marianne Frauenknecht, Dept. Of Health, Physical Education, & Recreation, Western Michigan University, 4024-6 GC, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-3871
Literature Reference: Frauenknecht, M., & Black, D.R. (1995). Social problem-solving inventory for adolescents (SCSI-A): Development and preliminary psychometric evaluation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64(3), p. 522-539.
Intended Audience: Adolescents, tested on 9th & 10th graders, mean age was 15.0 years old
Subtests: Two of the scales consist of separate subscales. The Problem Orientation Skills subscales are Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior; The Problem Solving Skills scales consist of Problem Identification, Alternative Generation, Consequence Prediction, and Implementation/Evaluation/Reorganization.
Psychometrics: Internal consistency was assessed as a measure of homogeneity. Alpha coefficients for total scale reliability were greater than r=.93, and greater than r=.81 for the three scales. Results indicate that the total instrument, the scales, and the subscales could be classified as homogenous and consistent. Test-retest correlation coefficients over a 2 week period were greater than r=.76, indicating a relatively stable instrument. Construct validity was evaluated by correlating the SCSI-A with the Problem-Solving Inventory (Heppner & Peterson, 1982). A relatively high degree of commonality was found to exist indicating that both of the instruments are measuring the similar constructs.
Advantages/Disadvantages: Data for psychometrics are preliminary. However, these initial results indicate that the instrument is a potentially reliable and valid measure for evaluating problem-solving competencies and the efficacy of problem-solving programs for adolescents.
Return to top of page
Evaluation Tools Page
ENTRY DATE:: December 1998